Fractionation of black liquor – aliphatic carboxylic acids General approach Roughly one half of the wood dry matter degrades and dissolves in kraft pulping.1,2 Therefore, under alkaline conditions, a substantial amount of hemicelluloses is converted into aliphatic carboxylic acids, which, together with lignin degradation fragments and extractives, are removed from the initial chips and dissolved
Authors & references
Raimo Alén, University of Jyväskylä
Alén, R. 2011. Principles of biorefining. In: Alén, R. (Ed.). Biorefining of Forest Resources. Paper Engineers’ Association, Helsinki, Finland. Pp. 55−114.
Alén, R. 2018. Carbohydrate Chemistry – Fundamentals and Applications. World Scientific, Singapore. Pp. 280−341.
Alén, R. 2015. Pulp mills and wood-based biorefineries. In: Pandey, A., Höfer, R., Taherzadeh, M., Nampoothiri, K. M. and Larroche, C. (Eds.). Industrial Biorefineries & White Biotechnology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Pp. 91−126.
Axegård, P. 2006. Utilization of black liquor and forestry residues in a pulp mill biorefinery. Proceedings of Forest Based Sector Technology Platform Conference, November 22–23, 2006, Lahti, Finland.
van Heiningen, A. 2006. Converting a kraft pulp mill into an integrated forest biorefinery. Pulp and Paper Canada 107(6):38–43.
Mateos-Espejel, E., Marinova, M., Schneider, S. and Paris, J. 2010. Simulation of a kraft pulp mill for the integration of biorefinery technologies and energy analysis. Pulp and Paper Canada 111(3):19–23.
Alén, R., Patja, P. and Sjöström, E. 1979. Carbon dioxide precipitation of lignin from pine kraft black liquor. Tappi 62(11):108–110.
Uloth, V. and Wearing, J. 1989. Kraft lignin recovery: acid precipitation versus ultrafiltration. Part I: laboratory test results. Pulp and Paper Canada 90(9):67–71.
Uloth, V. and Wearing, J. 1989. Kraft lignin recovery: acid precipitation versus ultrafiltration. Part II: technology and economics. Pulp and Paper Canada 90(10):34–37.
Öhman, F. and Theliander, H. 2007. Filtration properties of lignin precipitated from black liquor. Tappi Journal 6(7):3–9.
Wallmo, H., Richards, T. and Theliander, H. 2007. Lignin precipitation from kraft black liquors: kinetics and carbon dioxide absorption. Paperi ja Puu 89:436–442.
Wallmo, H. 2008. Lignin Extraction from Black Liquor — Precipitation, Filtration and Washing. Doctoral Thesis. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden. 73 p.
Hubbe, M. A., Alén, R., Paleologou, M., Kannangara, M. and Kihlman, J. 2019. Lignin recovery from spent alkaline pulping liquors using acidification, membrane separation, and relating processing steps: a review. BioResources 14(1):2300–2351.
Alén, R. and Sjöström, E. 1980. Isolation of hydroxy acids from pine kraft black liquors, Part 1. Preparation of crude fraction. Paperi ja Puu 62(5):328–330.
Alén, R., Moilanen, V.-P. and Sjöström, E. 1986. Potential recovery of hydroxy acids from kraft pulping liquors. Tappi Journal 69(2):76–78.
Kumar, H. and Alén, R. 2014. Partial recovery of aliphatic carboxylic acids and sodium hydroxide from hardwood black liquor by electrodialysis. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 53:9464–9470.
Raucq, D., Pourcelly, G. and Gavach, G. 1993. Production of sulfur acid and caustic soda from sodium sulfate by electromembrane process. Comparison between electro-electrodialysis and electrodialysis on bipolar membrane. Desalination 91(12):163–175.
Paleologou, M., Thibault, A., Wong, P.-Y., Thompson, R. and Berry, R. M. 1996. Optimization of two-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis system for the production of sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid from sodium sulfate generated at kraft mills using ECF and TCF bleaching sequences. Proceedings of Symposium on Minimum Effluent Mills. TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GA, USA. Pp. 381–384.
Wilhelm, F. G. 2001. Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis – Membrane Development and Transport Characteristics. Doctoral Thesis. University of Twente, Twente, The Netherlands. 235 p.
Biggs, Jr. W. A., Wise, J. T., Cook, W. R., Baxley, W. H., Robertson, J. D. and Copenhaver, J. E. 1961. Commercial production of acetic and formic acids from NSSC black liquor. Tappi 44:385–392.
Alén, R. and Sjöström, E. 1980. Isolation of hydroxy acids from pine kraft black liquor, Part 2. Purification by distillation. Paperi ja Puu 62(8):469–471.
Alén, R. and Sjöström, E. 1981. Isolation of hydroxy acids from alkaline birch black liquors. Paperi ja Puu 63(1):5–6,16.
Alén, R., Sjöström, E. and Suominen, S. 1990. Application of ion-exclusion chromatography to alkaline pulping liquors, separation of hydroxy carboxylic acids from inorganic solids. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 51:225–233.
Alén, R. and Sjöström, E. 1980. Condensation of glycolic, lactic, and 2-hydroxybutanoic acids during heating and identification of the condensation products by GLC-MS. Acta Chemica Scandinavica B 34(9):633–636.
Kumar, H. and Alén, R. 2015. Recovery of aliphatic low-molecular-mass carboxylic acids from hardwood kraft black liquor. Separation and Purification Technology 142:293–298.
Garrote, G., Domínguez, H. and Parajó, J. C. 2001. Generation of xylose solutions from Eucalyptus globules wood by autohydrolysis-posthydrolysis processes: posthydrolysis kinetics. Bioresource Technology 79:155–164.
Sun, Y. and Cheng, J. 2002. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresource Technology 83:1–11.
Tunc, M. S. and van Heiningen, A. R. P. 2008. Hemicellulose extraction of mixed southern hardwood with water at 150 °C. Effect of time. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 47:7031–7037.
Kumar, P., Barrett, D. M., Delwiche, M. J. and Stroeve, P. 2009. Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 48:3713–3729.
Viikari, L. and Alén, R. 2011. Biochemical and chemical conversion of forest biomass. In: Alén, R. (Ed.). Biorefining of Forest Resources. Paper Engineers’ Association, Helsinki, Finland. Pp. 225−261.
Lehto, J. 2015. Advanced Biorefinery Concepts Integrated to Chemical Pulping. Doctoral Thesis. University of Jyväskylä. Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Jyväskylä, Finland. 173 p.
Aurell, R. and Hartler, N. 1965. Kraft pulping on pine. I. Changes in the composition of wood residue during the cooking process. Svensk Papperstidning 68(3):59–68.
Sjöström, E. 1993. Wood Chemistry – Fundamentals and Applications. 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA. 293 p.
Pakkanen, H. and Alén, R. 2012. Molecular mass distribution of lignin from the alkaline pulping of hardwood, softwood, and wheat straw. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology 32(4):279–293.
Alén, R. 2000. Basic chemistry of wood delignification. In: Stenius, P. (Ed.). Forest Products Chemistry. Fapet, Helsinki, Finland. Pp. 58–104.
Wafa Al-Dajani, W. and Tschirner, U. W. 2008. Pre-extraction of hemicelluloses and subsequent kraft pulping. Part I: alkaline extraction. Tappi Journal 7(6):3–8.
Alén, R. 2009. Collection of Organic Compounds – Properties and Uses. Consalen Consulting, Helsinki, Finland. 1370 p. (In Finnish).
Alén, R. 1998. Utilisation of the aliphatic carboxylic acids formed as byproducts in kraft pulping. Kemia-Kemi 15:565–569. (In Finnish).
Kumar, H. and Alén, R. 2016. Microwave-assisted catalytic esterification of α-glucoisosaccharino-1,4-lactone with tall oil fatty acids. Sustainable Chemical Processes 4(4):1–5.
Glasser, W. and Sarkanen, S. (Eds.). 1989. Lignin: Properties and Materials. ACS Symposium Series 397, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA. 545 p.
Vishtal, A. and Kraslawski, A. 2011. Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins. BioResources 6(3):3547–3568.
Bujanovic, B. M., Goundalkar, M. J. and Amidon, T. E. 2012. Increasing the value of a biorefinery based on hot-water extraction: lignin products. Tappi Journal 11(1):19–26.
Our site uses functional cookies. Functional cookies are cookies that ensure the proper functioning of the Website (e.g. cookies for login or registration, language preferences) and their installation does not require your permission.