Structure of the tree – Bark, leaves, needles and roots Bark As shown in Figure 1, bark can be inner bark (phloem) or outer bark (rhytidome). Inner bark forms between the cambium and the last layer of periderm or rhytidome. This is the dead part of the outer bark, with the thickest layers in the
Authors & references
Seppo Kellomäki (Professor Emeritus, University of Eastern Finland) has modified and updated the text from the reference “Kellomäki, S. 2009. Trees, forests and forest ecosystems. In: Kellomäki, S. (Ed.). Forest Resources and Sustainable Management. 2nd edition. Paper Engineers’ Association, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 16-96”.
Kramer, P.J., and Kozlowski, T.T. 1979. Physiology of woody plants. Academic Press. New York/San Francisco/London. 811 p.
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