Characteristics of pest outbreaks Most tree-feeding herbivores only slightly damage growing trees, thus not being pests. Some mammalian or insect herbivores can cause significant injury and growth loss. They can even kill trees and cause changes in the forest ecosystems if their population densities rise excessively. Outbreaks of different kinds of pests vary in frequency,
Authors & references
Seppo Kellomäki, Pekka Niemelä, Heli Peltola, Veikko Koski and Pertti Pulkkinen
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