Trees, forests and forest ecosystems Any vascular plant is a tree if it has clearly recognisable crown, stem and root systems. The plant therefore has a tree-like structure with a balanced relationship among different structural components, which include the crown (foliage and branches), stem and roots (coarse and fine roots). The proportions of components to
Authors & references
Seppo Kellomäki (Professor Emeritus, University of Eastern Finland) has modified and updated the text from the reference “Kellomäki, S. 2009. Trees, forests and forest ecosystems. In: Kellomäki, S. (Ed.). Forest Resources and Sustainable Management. 2nd edition. Paper Engineers’ Association, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 16-96”.
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