Functioning of a tree In the boreal and temperate zones, the functioning of trees follows the life cycle. Regardless of the phase of life cycle, trees annually undergo the cycles of summer (high temperature) and winter (low temperature), representing active and dormant periods (Figure 1). In this context, the life cycle represents the course of
Authors & references
Seppo Kellomäki (Professor Emeritus, University of Eastern Finland) has modified and updated the text from the reference “Kellomäki, S. 2009. Trees, forests and forest ecosystems. In: Kellomäki, S. (Ed.). Forest Resources and Sustainable Management. 2nd edition. Paper Engineers’ Association, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 16-96”.
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Kellomäki, S., and Wang, K. 1997. Effects of long-term CO2 and temperature elevation on crown nitrogen distribution and daily photosynthetic performance of Scots pine. Forest Ecology and Management 99: 309–326.
Kellomäki, S. 2017. Managing boreal forests in the context of climate change. Impacts, adaptation and climate change mitigating. CRC Press. A Sciences Publishers Book. Boca Raton/London/New York. 357 p.
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