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Cockling and fluting

Cockling and fluting Cockling refers to a situation where paper has lost its planarity because small “bumps” 5–50 mm in diameter occur at random positions, as shown in Figure 1. Usually, the out-of-plane deviation is small — around 1 mm. Cockling comes from the hygroexpansivity and structural unevenness of paper. It is mostly evident in
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This page has been updated 29.06.2023