Professor Emeritus Kauko Leiviskä, University of Oulu
Clay, D. T. (2010). Evaporator principles and black liquor properties. 2010 TAPPI Kraft recovery course. 3.1. Florida, USA, TAPPI.
Andersson, M. 2015. Modelling of Black Liquor Evaporator Cleaning. Master’s Thesis in Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
Frederick, j., Shi, B., Euhus, D.D. and Rousseau, R.W. 2004. Crystallization and control of sodium salt scales in black liquor concentrators. Tappi Journal, 3(6):7–13.
Shi, B. and Rousseau, R. W. 2003. Structure of burkeite and a new crystalline species obtained from solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium sulfate, J. Phys. Chem. B (107):6932-6937.
Gourdon, M. 2011. The effects of flow velocity on crystallization fouling in falling film black liquor evaporators. International Conference on Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning. Crete Island, Greece, June 5.10.
Karlsson, E. Gourdon, M., Olausson, L. and Vamling, L. 2013. Heat transfer for falling film evaporation of black liquor up to very high Prandtl numbers. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 65:907–918.
Costa, G.A-A., de Oliveira, E.D., Park, S.W. and Cardoso, M. 2007. Overall heat transfer coefficients in a kraft black liquor industrial evaporation unit. Part II – Predictive correlations. Appita Journal 60(4):327-332.
Kandiklar, S. G. 1990. A general correlation for saturated two-phase flow boiling heat transfer inside horizontal and vertical tubes. Journal of Heat Transfer 112(2):219-228.
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