Introduction to Energy and biofuels The main manufacturing costs in the European forest industry are the costs of fibre raw material, i.e. wood, recovered paper and market pulp. In Finland and Sweden, the cost of virgin wood is the biggest cost component 1. Energy costs are 12–17 % of the total manufacturing cost and thus
Authors & references
Esa Vakkilainen and Satu Kähkönen, LUT University
METLA. 2014. Finnish forest sector economic outlook 2013–2014 (in Finnish).
Siitonen, S. et al. (2002). Possibilities of Reducing CO2 Emissions in the Finnish Forest Industry. Helsinki.
Salmen, L. et al. (1999). Fundamentals of mechanical pulping. In: Jan Sundholm, (ed). Mechanical Pulping, Book 5 Papermaking Science and technology, Jyväskylä: Fapet Oy.
Gullichsen, J. (2000). Fiber line operations. Papermaking Science and Technology Book 6A, Chemical Pulping, Jyväskylä.
Göttsching, L. (2000). General aspects and basic statistics. Lothar Göttsching and Heikki Pakarinen, (eds). Paper Making Science and Technology Book 7, Recycled Fiber and Deinking, Jyväskylä.
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