Spent liquors

Spent liquor A variety of useful products can be obtained from acid sulphite spent liquors (SSLs), but today most of their organic solids are burned to generate energy and recover cooking chemicals.1,2 Since the dissolved organic solids represent a considerable fuel value, there are rather few industrial applications for the production of chemicals from SSL

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Reactions of lignin in acid sulphite pulping

Reactions of lignin in acid sulphite pulping New content coming soon!

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Acid sulphite pulping

Acid sulphite pulping In 1866, the American chemist Benjamin C. Tilghman patented in England a method wherein the defibration of wood took place in a pressurised system of aqueous calcium hydrogen sulphite (Ca(HSO3)2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2).1,2 This “sulphite cooking” process was not immediately realised on a large scale. However, Carl Daniel Ekman conducted pivotal

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A climate-smart sawmill industry

A climate-smart sawmill industry The sawmill industry started to prepare a low-carbon roadmap for the sector in the autumn of 2019. The preparation of the roadmap was based on the Finnish Government’s goal, according to which Finland should be carbon neutral by 2035 and carbon negative soon afterwards. To speed up the achievement of the

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General theories of fiber spinning

General theories of fibre spinning Oriented crystallisation in melts – melt spinning Important process steps for fibre structure formation include cooling the molten fibre strand to a solid phase, stretching the solidified, melt spun fibre to its final fineness, and stabilising the stretched fibre by thermofixing. Linear chain polymers are used to make the fibres

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Multicomponent, micro- and nanofibres

Multicomponent, micro- and nanofibres Ultra-fine fibres, defined as fibre fineness less than 0.8–0.9 dtex (0.7 den), were produced as fine staple fibres of random length by melt blow spinning and flash spinning in the late 1950s. The production of ultra-fine filaments was developed by DuPont and Toray in the 1960s by using the technology of

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Manufacturing of modal and polynosic fibres

Manufacturing of modal and polynosic fibres Modal fibres are defined in International Standard ISO 206: 999 (E) as high wet modulus, high breaking strength regenerated cellulose fibres produced by using special viscose rayon method, and regeneration bath compositions which allows greater molecular orientation during stretch and coagulation of the fibres. Modal is also defined by

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Manufacturing and properties of cellulose-silica hybrid fibres

Manufacturing and properties of cellulose-silica hybrid fibres Only two significant contenders, both based on the traditional viscose process, are commercially available – comprising an organophosphorus and nitrogen/sulphur-containing species: Clariant 5060 (2, 2-oxybis (5,5-dimethyl – 1, 2, 3 – dioxaphosphorinane) 2, 2 – disulphide) at 10–15 wt % loading, and Visil AP®, which contains about 30

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Biobased polyolefines

Biobased polyolefines The largest field of application for bio-based plastics is packaging, which accounts for over 50 % of 1.14 million tonnes of bio-based plastic production (in 2019), followed by textiles with 11 % of the production. The rest of production is used for various applications in many industrial branches. Polyethylene is the largest polymer

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