Processing of silkworm and spider silk protein fibres

 Processing of silkworm and spider silk protein fibres Structural hierarchy in spider silk The structure of spider silk, for its various biological purposes, is one of its most outstanding characteristics. Seven distinct silk-producing glands, with diverse functional properties, were identified in orb- or cob-weaving spiders alone. The ampullate glands produce dragline and structural silk for

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Industrial development with silkworm and spider silk

Industrial development with silkworm and spider silk Many attempts have been carried out for the separation and dissolving of proteins (fibroin) from several protein sources, such as milk, bacteria and fungi for preparing man-made silk. Up to the year 2019, only kg-level capacities have been reached. Kraig Biocraft Laboratories has been announced to have reached

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Regenerated protein fibres

Regenerated protein fibres Casein fibres Casein is technically used in addition to its use as food and as a raw material for various processing purposes, such as binder in casein paints and dyeing, as casein glue or as a photoresist in etching technology. Casein glue is said to have been used by the Chinese and

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Production of Alginate fibres

Production of alginate fibres Raw material Alginate was first produced from seaweed in 1940. It is a product of a neutralising reaction between alginic acid and caustic soda. When combined with other fibres, it takes on a sheer appearance. The raw material in the production of calcium alginate fibres is alginic acid, a compound that

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Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose

Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose History and markets Carbon fibres based on viscose-type regenerated cellulose precursor fibres have been available since the 1920s. Cellulose-based carbon fibres have been overtaken by polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and isotropic pitch in many applications, especially in high-modulus composites. Cellulose and viscose precursors have still some shares of the demand due to

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Importance of photosynthesis for life

Importance of photosynthesis for life Their ability to form organic matter from inorganic substances, mostly water and carbon dioxide, is a unique feature of green plants, algae and cyanobacteria. The majority of the life on the Earth is totally dependent on these organisms that are able to capture the energy of sunlight and convert it

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Production of Cupro fibres

Production of Cupro fibres Cellulose is dissolved in a spinning solvent containing ammonia and copper salts (sulphate i.e. chloride), while cooling. The finished spinning solution contains 4-11 % cellulose, 4-6 % copper and 6-10 % ammonia. In a typical cuprammonium process, a freshly made aqueous solution of copper hydroxide (formed from copper sulphate and caustic

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Non-cell wall polysaccharides

Non-cell wall polysaccharides In addition to cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins, plants contain polysaccharides that do not locate in the cell wall. These polysaccharides do not have any specific interaction with cellulose (different from ‘cellulose-like’ hemicelluloses) or necessity of forming gel-type of network structures (different from pectins and ‘cellulose-unlike’ hemicelluloses). The non-cell wall polysaccharides serve mostly

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Plant cell wall

Plant cell wall All parts of living plants consist of varying amounts of living and dead cells. Different from animals, a cellulose-containing cell wall surrounds each living plant cell, its cell membrane and cytoplasm. When the cells die, the cell wall is basically what remains. In plants, the dead cells are not useless at all.

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Aging of wood

Aging of wood In living trees, the outer bark protects the phloem and xylem from exposure to sunlight, rain and dryness. Cutting and debarking of the trees lead to several changes that are important in technical and structural analysis of wood. Fresh wood cell walls contain by volume ca. 30 % water and its removal

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