Paper surface and thermal, electrical and friction characteristics

Paper surface and thermal, electrical and friction characteristics This section covers the macroscopic surface properties of paper and the physical properties that are directly related to its surface geometry. Emphasis is given to empirical characterisation methods and papermaking effects. The relationship between surface properties and the fibre network structure is given limited attention, although the

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4 – Environmental impact and sustainability of modern forest industry

Module B4 – Environmental impact and sustainability of modern forest industry Learning targets After reading this article you will have a basic understanding of… water sourcing and wastewater handling the origin and handling of waste material waste management environmental regulations environmental labels and declarations circular economy Environmental control Key source in Forest Biofacts: Environmental control

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3 – Other bio-based materials produced in the forest industry

Module B3 – Other bio-based materials produced in the forest industry Learning targets After reading this article you will have general insight into… • Biogenesis – the origin of bio-based raw materials • Basic biomass chemistry and physiology • What man-made bio-based fibre products and polymers, and their end uses, are • Bio-based nanomaterials and

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2 – Wood products

Module B2 – Wood products Learning targets This section will give you a general insight into the woodworking industries. After reading this article you will… have a general understanding of the woodworking industry. learn the raw material sources of the woodworking industry. gain knowledge about the properties of wood products. increase your knowledge about end

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Structure of inter-fibre bonds

Structure of inter-fibre bonds Inter-fibre bonds in paper form gradually as the solids content increases in the paper-making process. At first, surface tension forces, such as colloidal interactions and mechanical interlocking of fibrils, pull fibres closer together when water is removed from the wet web. This is the Campbell effect.1 The same forces give the

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Fibres and bonding

Fibres and bonding Bonding between cellulosic fibres (i.e. inter-fibre bonding) and its relationship to the mechanical and optical properties of paper was studied intensively in the 1950s and 1960s. Many results published in those years still have great value. Extensive literature reviews are available that provide more detailed information than what we can give here.1,2,3

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Internal stresses in paper sheet

Internal stresses in paper sheet Deformations in the internal structure of fibres and bonds explain qualitatively the changes caused by drying in the microscopic and macroscopic properties of paper. Such deformations are seldom directly observable. Therefore, concepts such as internal stresses, dried-in stresses, or dried-in strains often find use in explaining the effects of drying

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Mechanical properties of dry fibres

Mechanical properties of dry fibres The mechanical properties of single dry fibres have also been the subject of considerable study, despite the tedious measurements involved. As an example, Figure 1 illustrates the wide distribution of tensile strength values. The high variability arises from the biological raw material and from the nonuniformity of pulping processes. In

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Mechanical properties of wet fibres

Mechanical properties of wet fibres The properties of wet fibres significantly affect the structure of the fibre network and the bonding potential of fibres, whereas the properties of dry fibres contribute, together with bonding, to the strength of the dry fibre network. The network structure of paper depends on the dimensions and conformability of wet

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The effects of pulping on fibres

The effects of pulping on fibres In addition to the type of raw material, pulping, bleaching and beating have crucial effects on the pulp properties. Two basic classes are chemical pulp and mechanical pulp, as illustrated in Figure 1. In making chemical pulp, wood is disintegrated chemically into fibres by cooking wood chips into kraft

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