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Viscose and lyocell machinery developments

General development of cellulose fibre production machinery Viscose process Because of long history, the fibre industry has not been very innovative in the last few decades. Main process stages finalised in the late 1980s are applied in the 2010s, as well. The automatisation of the process control has been rapidly developed in 1980s and has

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Coloration of textiles

Colouration of textiles Technological background Colours in biological systems is one of the ways to secure growth, dissemination and protection of species. Colouration used by the human race introduces the aesthetic appeal of a human itself and textiles for clothing and interior textiles and other functional properties in some cases. Colours have been used throughout

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Interior and household textiles

Interior and household textiles Traditional interior and furnishing textiles represent a total of 10-15 % of the consumption of fibres. Interior development is motivated by an ongoing global shift of supply and competition. Traditional manufacturers, such as carpet producers, focus their development on the addition of innovative functions and utility value. There are systematic procedural

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Technologies for clothing production: capital vs. labour intensive production

Technologies for clothing production: capital vs. labour intensive production Very often the textile industry is separated from and opposed to the garment and clothing industry, due to the difference between the investment costs compulsory to build up a textile and garment factory. These differences have led the garment industry to outsource very rapidly (early 1990).

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Polyhydroxyalcohols PHA and poly(caprolactone)

Polyhydroxyalcohols PHA and poly(caprolactone) Poly(hydroxyalakanoates) Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) represent of a variety of materials with a broad range of properties. Generally, all types described in scientific literature are produced by bacteria, although synthetic routes are also known and used. About 40 roots of bacteria exist able to produce polyester-type polymers. PHBHs are produced in micro-organisms such as

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Bio-based polyesters — emerging processes

Biobased polyesters – emerging processes Polyester based on (biobased) ethylene diol and furane dicarboxylic acid PEF FDCA is a bio-based building block for resins and polymers. It holds potential and is used to produce high value products such as polyesters, polyamides, copolymers, solvents, coating resins and plasticizers. It is formed by an oxidative dehydration of

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Cellulose carbamate process

Cellulose carbamate process Traditional and ammonia-assisted methods Cellulose carbamate is alkali soluble at a substitution degree of 0.2 to 0.3. The formation of cellulose carbamate begins when the mixture of cellulose and urea is heated to a temperature exceeding the melting point of the latter (133 °C). When heated, urea decomposes to isocyanic acid and

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Cellulose-lignin blend as carbon fibre raw material

Cellulose-lignin blend as carbon fibre raw material The behaviour of raw materials The 10 % increase in annual demand for carbon fibres has been motivating companies to develop fibres for industrial composites requiring low weight and high mechanical performance. Wind energy and many sectors of the transportations industry today utilise the main share of the

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Bio-based polyolefines

Biobased polyolefines The largest field of application for bio-based plastics is packaging, which accounts for over 50 % of 1.14 million tons of bio-based plastic production (in 2019), followed by textiles by 11 % of the production. The rest of production is used for various applications in many industrial branches. Bio-based bulk chemicals and polymers

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Polylactide fibres

Polylactide fibres Fermentation Energy from the sun promotes photosynthesis within plant cells, which is when carbon dioxide and water from the atmosphere are converted into starch. This starch is readily extracted from plant matter and converted to a fermentable sugar (e.g. glucose) by enzymatic hydrolysis. The carbon and other elements in these natural sugars are

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