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Processing of silkworm and spider silk protein fibres

 Processing of silkworm and spider silk protein fibres Structural hierarchy in spider silk The structure of spider silk, for its various biological purposes, is one of its most outstanding characteristics. Seven distinct silk-producing glands, with diverse functional properties, were identified in orb- or cob-weaving spiders alone. The ampullate glands produce dragline and structural silk for

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Industrial development with silkworm and spider silk

Industrial development with silkworm and spider silk Many attempts have been carried out for the separation and dissolving of proteins (fibroin) from several protein sources, such as milk, bacteria and fungi for preparing man-made silk. Up to the year 2019, only kg-level capacities have been reached. Kraig Biocraft Laboratories has been announced to have reached

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Regenerated protein fibres

Regenerated protein fibres Casein fibres Casein is technically used in addition to its use as food and as a raw material for various processing purposes, such as binder in casein paints and dyeing, as casein glue or as a photoresist in etching technology. Casein glue is said to have been used by the Chinese and

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Production of Alginate fibres

Production of alginate fibres Raw material Alginate was first produced from seaweed in 1940. It is a product of a neutralising reaction between alginic acid and caustic soda. When combined with other fibres, it takes on a sheer appearance. The raw material in the production of calcium alginate fibres is alginic acid, a compound that

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Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose

Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose History and markets Carbon fibres based on viscose-type regenerated cellulose precursor fibres have been available since the 1920s. Cellulose-based carbon fibres have been overtaken by polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and isotropic pitch in many applications, especially in high-modulus composites. Cellulose and viscose precursors have still some shares of the demand due to

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Production of Cupro fibres

Production of Cupro fibres Cellulose is dissolved in a spinning solvent containing ammonia and copper salts (sulphate i.e. chloride), while cooling. The finished spinning solution contains 4-11 % cellulose, 4-6 % copper and 6-10 % ammonia. In a typical cuprammonium process, a freshly made aqueous solution of copper hydroxide (formed from copper sulphate and caustic

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General elementary theory for polymer fibre forming

General elementary theory of polymer fibre forming Fibres are very thin and at least 100 times their diameter. They are formed from longitudinally oriented macromolecules having a cross-section of at least hundreds of millions of polymer bonds. As a result, the strength of the chemical bond of the polymer is correspondingly multiplied, whereby the fibres

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Future demands of sustainable clothing production

Future demands of sustainable clothing production Introduction In the past year, due to the fast fashion trend, as shown in Figure 1 the number of clothing units was blowing up and the cloth usage was dramatically decreasing 1. This phenomenon, which is still growing, is slowly going to collapse in Western counties due to the

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Textile composites

Textile composites Statistics Composites are materials which are made from two or more constituent components, which together produce a material with superior properties compared to the constituents. The constituents are commonly known as the matrix phase and the reinforcing phase. In polymer composites, the matrix can be either a thermoset polymer or a thermoplastic polymer,

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Biobased acryl nitrile for carbon fibres

Bio-based acryl nitrile for carbon fibres In the December 2017 issue of Science, Gregg Beckham, a group leader at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and an interdisciplinary team reported the results of experimental and computational investigations on the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into a bio-based chemical called acrylonitrile, the key precursor to manufacturing carbon fibre. Beckham and

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