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General theories of fiber spinning

General theories of fibre spinning Oriented crystallisation in melts – melt spinning Important process steps for fibre structure formation include cooling the molten fibre strand to a solid phase, stretching the solidified, melt spun fibre to its final fineness, and stabilising the stretched fibre by thermofixing. Linear chain polymers are used to make the fibres

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Multicomponent, micro- and nanofibres

Multicomponent, micro- and nanofibres Ultra-fine fibres, defined as fibre fineness less than 0.8–0.9 dtex (0.7 den), were produced as fine staple fibres of random length by melt blow spinning and flash spinning in the late 1950s. The production of ultra-fine filaments was developed by DuPont and Toray in the 1960s by using the technology of

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Manufacturing of modal and polynosic fibres

Manufacturing of modal and polynosic fibres Modal fibres are defined in International Standard ISO 206: 999 (E) as high wet modulus, high breaking strength regenerated cellulose fibres produced by using special viscose rayon method, and regeneration bath compositions which allows greater molecular orientation during stretch and coagulation of the fibres. Modal is also defined by

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Manufacturing and properties of cellulose-silica hybrid fibres

Manufacturing and properties of cellulose-silica hybrid fibres Only two significant contenders, both based on the traditional viscose process, are commercially available – comprising an organophosphorus and nitrogen/sulphur-containing species: Clariant 5060 (2, 2-oxybis (5,5-dimethyl – 1, 2, 3 – dioxaphosphorinane) 2, 2 – disulphide) at 10–15 wt % loading, and Visil AP®, which contains about 30

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Biobased polyolefines

Biobased polyolefines The largest field of application for bio-based plastics is packaging, which accounts for over 50 % of 1.14 million tonnes of bio-based plastic production (in 2019), followed by textiles with 11 % of the production. The rest of production is used for various applications in many industrial branches. Polyethylene is the largest polymer

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General description of carbamate processes

General description of carbamate processes Wet spinning In the wet spinning process cellulose is dissolved in sodium hydroxide and spun in acid. The acid neutralises the sodium hydroxide resulting regeneration of cellulose, and this is why man-made fibres are also called regenerated fibres. In the wet spinning process the polymer solution (dope) is pumped with

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Yarns and fibres from paper

Yarns and fibres from paper Sulphate-papers containing long fibres (Sulfatpapiere) were mostly used for the paper used for making yarns (Spinning papers or Spinnpapiere). In those papers the cellulose fibres are not totally dissolved, and therefore the paper is stronger. The thickness of spinning papers can vary – the thinnest are like tissue paper, the thicker ones

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Polyamides from ligno-cellulosics as raw materials

Polyamides from ligno-cellulosics as raw materials Monomer production from non-food and waste streams or directly from syngas, CO2 or methane will increase as the basic chemistry for monomers. Atmospheric CO2 will be used as a captured resource, which will be stored and utilised to manufacture chemicals, energy products and materials. Published by VTT, further basic

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Biocelsol process

Biocelsol process Biocelsol technology was developed in the late 1980s, when Nousiainen and Struszczyk invented cellulose soluble directly in aqueous alkaline solution after using Aspergillus and Trichoderma enzymes combined with mechanical pretreatment. Subsequently, the technology was developed in several projects, in particular EU NMT funding in 2004-2007 and in the Fibic/Tekes program 2009-2013. The aim

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Ioncell-F method

Ioncell-F method Ionic liquids (ILs) have been previously widely researched since 1879´s Nobel Prize (Ramsay) including properties, applications, use as a medium for chemical synthesis and recycling. ILs have been used for cellulose dissolving (mainly type CnIM+ Cm X–) in the 2000s by Swatloski at the University of Alabama. He reached more than 10,000 citations,

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