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Additive manufacturing of bio-based (nano)materials

Additive manufacturing of bio-based (nano)materials Introduction – What is additive manufacturing The additive manufacturing (AM process) is based on building a three-dimensional (3D) object by using the layer-by-layer process 1. The AM process is an opposite method of the traditional subtractive and die-casting techniques (Figure 1). In subtractive manufacturing, the 3D object is manufactured by

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Nanomaterial and nanotechnology related regulations in the EU

Nanomaterial and nanotechnology related regulations in the EU REACH & CLP In the European Union, nanomaterials are regulated under the EU’s chemical legislation, i.e. REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restrictions of Chemicals)1 and CLP (Classification, Labeling and Packaging)2. The general aim of the EU’s chemical legislation is to protect human health and the environment, promote

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Environmental health & exposure

Environmental health and exposure Cellulose nanomaterials (CNM) may encounter the environment during production, with the waste streams or as accidental release. Another potential release point is at the end of their life, due to disposal or recycling. Release can take place also during product use, especially from products’ potential for wash-off during or after product

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Human health & Occupational exposure

Human health & occupational exposure The toxicity of bio-based nanomaterials towards humans is generally tested using a battery of tests based on standard methodologies, which also have been proven to be suitable for testing of nanomaterials. Testing is usually done in vitro, outside of the living organism, for example in a test tube or plate

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Patent landscape

Patent landscape for cellulose micro-and nanomaterials Information on the current and future applications for bio-based micro- and nanomaterials can be sought from patent landscapes, as patenting is seen to reflect the future activities of companies and other organisations. The companies generally patent only those technologies that they believe have business potential and will provide commercial

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Commercial applications

Commercial products Commercial products containing cellulose micro- or nanomaterials have been announced by a number of companies. It is also worth noting that the materials are very likely utilised in other applications, but the producers have not made this information public. Due to this, the list of commercial applications is by no means limited to

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Industrial production

Industrial production of cellulose micro and nanomaterials Currently there are several commercial producers of cellulose micro and nanomaterials. In addition, many companies have started pre-commercial or demonstration production at full or pilot scale and many more have announced the start of production in the near future. The map presented in Figure 1 and the related

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Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC)

Microcrystalline cellulose Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is, essentially, hydrolysed cellulosic fibres, generally prepared from either wood-based pulp fibres or cotton linters. Introduced already in the 1950s and in commercial production since the 1960s,1 MCC is much more established as a commercial material than the currently popular nanocellulose grades. MCC finds use especially in the pharmaceutical, food

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CNC-Applications

Cellulose nanocrystal applications As of 2019, there is but one industrial plant that produces CNCs at a rate of 300 tons/year. Despite a number of pilot plants, the industrial production of CNCs can be considered a budding enterprise, still at the early stages of both productions and applications. The applications often mentioned by the entrepreneurs

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Characterisation of CNC properties

Characterisation of CNC properties Similar to cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), the characterisation of cellulose nanocrystals also requires a well-considered selection of methods. In Canada, the ear (CNC(ly commercialisation of CNC production led to a need for the producers and their customers to agree on the most critical characteristics of CNC and the suitable characterisation methods. This

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